The Siamese crocodile is a medium sized crocodilian reaching a maximum length of around 4 m (13 ft). It is also one of the world's most endangered crocodilian species with only a handful of small viable populations scattered in a few localities. The highest numbers of existing Siamese crocodiles are found within Cambodia (particularly within the Cardamom Mountains) but small viable populations are also found within Indonesia (Lake Mesangat, East Kalimantan) and Laos; reintroduction efforts have also been conducted in Vietnam (Cat Tien NP) and Thailand (Pang Sida NP). The species was likely much more widely distributed in historical times throughout Indochina and portions of Indonesia/Malaysia. The Siamese crocodile is primarily a freshwater species preferring swamps and lakes with floating vegetation, although it may also enter brackish areas on occasion. Juvenile diet includes primarily invertebrates and small fish, while adults have been documented preying upon larger fish, reptiles, amphibians, birds, and small mammals; the broad-snout of this species suggests that prey variety may be fairly generalized. The species appears to be, for the most part, relatively shy and inoffensive to humans. With the exception of re-introduced crocodiles, viable populations of this species have been virtually extirpated from Thailand and Vietnam; elsewhere the species is severely threatened by habitat destruction (e.g. the construction of hydropower dams) and both accidental and deliberate killings (e.g. electro-fishing, poaching).
Estimated Wild Population: under 5,000.
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered.